According to a recent study, Norway has the most number of female scientists and engineers in Europe. 55 % of all scientists and engineers in the country last year were women.
Only four other European countries had female majorities in science and engineering: Lithuania - just under 55%, Latvia - 52.7%, Denmark 51.7% and Bulgaria with just over 50% in 2019, reported the multimedium web portal Big Think.
Throughout Europe, stark differences persist in the participation level of women in science and engineering.
Countries with the least number of women in science were Luxembourg - just below 28%, Finland - 30.5%, Hungary - 32.6% and Germany - 33.3%. But Germany contains both the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, where the number goes up to 45.6%, well above the EU average; and Baden-Wurttemberg where it is 29.1%.
In 2002, the first year for which figures are available for the entirety of the current 27-member European Union, women scientists and engineers represented 30.3% of the total.
Last year, after 17 years of steady rise, that figure had reached 41.1%. That represents 6.3 million women scientists and engineers, versus 9.1 million men working in those fields - adding up to a total of 15.4 million scientists and engineers in the EU.
Switzerland, where the share of women scientists and engineers increased by 30.6% over 20 years, from just 10.7% in 1999 to 41.3% in 2019.
Denmark, which saw its share rise by 26.9% points over the same period, from 24.8%.
Norway, where the share rose by 19.8%, from just 35.3% in 1999.
France saw a 17.2% increase from 28.9% in 1999 to 46.1% in 2019.
However, increases were not the norm everywhere. In some countries, the share of women in science and engineering actually went down.
Nowhere more than in Finland, where women had a slight majority in 1999 (50.9%) but fell back by 20.4% to less than a third - 30.5% in 2019.
Estonian women also lost their majority in science and engineering, dropping from 52.4% in 1999 to 43.6 in 2019.
In Hungary, women lost 5.9% points over two decades, falling from 38.5% to 32.6%. In Belgium, the female share of scientists and engineers fell back from 47.9% in 1999 to 44.8% in 2019.