A post-Brexit trade and security deal was negotiated between the United Kingdom (UK) and the European Union (EU), an agreement by UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson that is so special that it would leave businesses facing more trade barriers than they did when Britain was part of the European Union.
While it may appear to have taken back control of the domestic fishing waters of Britain and put an end to the position of the European Court of Justice, at the beginning of the new year, companies and consumers may face a range of additional trade barriers, a price for reclaiming sovereignty, reports Bloomberg.
Based on summaries given by the two sides and Bloomberg reporting, the following sums up the key points of the agreement:
Trade in Goods
Summary: The agreement guarantees that there will be no new tariffs or quotas on most goods traded between the EU and the UK. British exporters, however, will face a series of new regulatory barriers that will make doing business in Europe more expensive and burdensome.
- Market access: Tariff-free and quota-free status will continue to apply to UK and EU products.
- Rules of origin: The United Kingdom is mandated by new rules to self-certify the origin of its exports to the EU. New tariffs could be in effect on those goods that have a high input threshold from outside the EU and the UK.
- Health and safety: The EU would require the provision of health certificates by UK agri-food exporters and undergo sanitary and phyto-sanitary controls at border inspection posts.
- Testing and certification: The absence of an agreement on mutual recognition means that the UK regulatory bodies would not be able to certify goods for sale in the EU, a potentially significant trade obstacle.
- Trade remedies: According to the rules developed by the World Trade Organization, the EU and the UK can follow tariffs and other sanctions.
Summary: For financial institutions, the agreement provides no clarification. There is no decision on so-called equivalence, which would enable businesses to offer their services from the City of London to the single market. The agreement only contains standard financial services clauses, which means that it does not include market access commitments.
- The UK and EU will discuss how to move forward on specific equivalence decisions. The European Commission, which is in charge of allowing access to the EU's market, said it needs more information from the UK and it doesn't plan to adopt any more equivalence decisions at this point.
- Regulatory cooperation: The two sides made a joint declaration to support enhanced cooperation on financial oversight. They aim to agree on a Memorandum of Understanding by March.
Level Playing Field
Summary: The deal commits both sides to upholding their environmental, social, labor and tax transparency standards to make sure they don't undercut each other. The British say the deal doesn't include a ratchet mechanism that would force it to stiffen its rule in lockstep with the EU.
- Either side will be able to impose with tariffs if they diverge too much -- subject to arbitration.
- European companies unhappy about any British government subsidies to rivals could ask UK courts to examine if they are unfair, EU officials said.
- No set limit for how much state help is problematic, this is taken on a "case-by-case" basis.
- The UK summary says both sides must be transparent about subsidies; both the EU and the UK will need an independent authority to check state subsidies.
- Courts must be able to order repayment of any illegal subsidies.
- A re-balancing mechanism is included.
Summary: The trade deal could be reopened if the two sides cannot resolve a dispute, or want to change the terms of the agreement, according to people familiar with the matter. One of the biggest stumbling blocks in the negotiations was the question of how to settle disputes over trade in future. The mechanism is likely to work like this:
- Either side can hit the other with tariffs in particular areas if they think they are justified under the terms of the agreement.
- If one side thinks the other is being unfair on such tariffs, they can take the issue to an arbitration panel, which is independent and will not be the European Court of Justice
- Individual chapters of the trade agreement can be reopened to renegotiate particular areas where there are disputes.
- A nuclear option will be available to terminate the whole trade deal if it's not working out, but the security agreement would stay in place.
Summary: This was one of the most contentious areas after disputes over the control of British fishing grounds came to symbolize the country's desire to leave the EU.
- UK fleets will take 25% of the current EU catch in British waters, worth 146 million pounds ($198 million), phased in over five years. Britain's opening negotiating position called for an 80% increase, so this represents a significant compromise.
- There is a transition period of five-and-a-half years during which reciprocal access rights to each other's waters remain unchanged.
Summary: Both sides pledge to limit customs red tape, including through programs for trusted traders known as authorized economic operators (AEOs have benefits including fewer controls).
- "Bespoke" measures including cooperation at "roll-on roll-off" ports such as Dover and Holyhead in Britain are also foreseen, according to the UK, while the EU refers to specific "facilitation arrangements" for wine, organics, automotive, pharmaceuticals and chemicals.
- The UK exit from the European single market on Jan. 1 was going to lead to more customs bureaucracy for both sides regardless of whether they reached a free-trade deal or not. The accord largely commits the EU and Britain to follow international practices aimed at minimizing customs costs for businesses.
Aviation and Trucking
Summary: The EU has stopped short of granting automatic recognition to British aerospace designs and products, according to a synopsis published by the UK government.
- Such recognition will be confined to minor changes until the EU "gains confidence in the UK's capability for overseeing design certification," the document says.
- On trucking: Both sides commit to "good and efficient management of visa and border arrangements for road hauliers, in particular across the United Kingdom-Union border" and to "appropriately facilitate the entry and stay of" truckers.
Summary: The Brexit deal includes a temporary solution to keep data flowing between the EU and UK until the bloc has adopted a data adequacy decision, according to EU officials and a UK summary of the agreement.
- This bridge period will last maximum six months, or end as soon as the EU's data adequacy decision has been finalized, which could happen in early 2021, EU officials said.
- Both sides also committed to upholding high levels of data protection standards, which would include data-adequacy decisions from both sides.
Summary: The UK won't have access to the EU's internal energy market. This was expected but there will be new arrangements in place by April 2022 to make sure that trading is smooth and efficient on interconnectors -- huge power cables that run between the UK and Europe.
- The UK is a net importer of electricity and gets 8% of its power from the continent. As an island nation, making sure trading across these interconnectors is efficient is important to Britain.
- Making trading smooth will "benefit UK consumers and help integrate renewables and other clean technologies onto the grid in line with our domestic commitment to net zero emissions" the UK document says.
- The deal includes guarantees on security of energy supply.
- The UK is no longer part of the EU's emissions trading system but both sides agreed to cooperate on carbon pricing in future and "consider linking their respective systems."
- The UK-EU agreement would be suspended if either side breaches their commitments to the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate, according to the summaries.
Summary: The deal means that there will no longer be automatic mutual recognition of professional qualifications, according to the EU's reading of the treaty.
- "Doctors, nurses, dentists, pharmacists, vets, engineers or architects must have their qualifications recognized in each member state they wish to practice in," the EU said.
- This is a loss for the UK, which had wanted "comprehensive coverage" to ensure there were no "unnecessary" barriers to regulated services. However, the deal does still provide a "framework" for the recognition of qualifications, according to the UK's summary of the agreement.
Summary: There are provisions so UK companies and individuals have "legal certainty and administrative clarity they need to continue engaging in business activity and delivering services in the EU when the transition period ends."
- They agreed on length of stays "that broadly reflect the outcome reached in the EU-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement. This includes the ability for UK short-term business visitors to travel to the EU for 90 days in any 180-day period."
- "The parties have also agreed not to impose work permits on business visitors for establishment purposes."
Summary: "There are no provisions constraining our domestic tax regime or tax rates," according to the UK
- Both sides pledge to "uphold global standards on tax transparency and fighting tax avoidance."
Summary: Trade of farm goods will benefit from the zero-tariff, zero-quota terms between the two sides. However, there will be new requirements at the border, adding costs and hurdles for shippers.
- No tariffs: The lack of levies is "especially important" for the agriculture and fishing sector, as some meat and dairy products would have faced taxes topping 40% under WTO terms, the EU's summary said.
- Extra checks: "U.K. agri-food consignments will have to have health certificates and undergo sanitary and phyto-sanitary controls at Member States' border inspection posts," the EU says. The U.K. summary notes that both sides will be able to maintain their own sanitary standards going forward.
- Organic products: There will be an equivalence agreement allowing for foods certified organic in one market to be recognized in the other, the UK said.
Summary: Disputes on the deal must be negotiated between the EU and the UK with no role for the EU courts, according to a UK reading of the agreement.
- An arbitration panel may rule on some areas and can order one side to resolve the problem or offer compensation.
- Failure to do so allows the other side to "suspend obligations" which could mean blocking some access or cooperation.
- If there's a "serious economic, societal or environmental difficulty," either side can react with time-limited measures.
Summary: The deal will allow cooperation between the UK and EU, particularly as part of investigations into terrorism and serious crime, including with the exchange of DNA, fingerprint and airline passenger information.
- There will be cooperation between UK and EU law-enforcement agencies, but the UK loses membership in Europol and Eurojust.
- Extradition: The UK said there will similar cooperation on extraditions to that between the EU and Norway and Iceland, "but with appropriate further safeguards for individuals beyond those in the European Arrest Warrant."
- Where extradition isn't possible, there will still be "a path to justice in every case" such as requiring EU countries to refer cases to prosecution.