Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, speaking at a ceremony on Saturday marking the 75th anniversary of Japan's World War Two surrender, pledged never to repeat the devastation of war.
"Never to repeat the tragedy of war. We will continue to remain committed to this resolute pledge," Abe said.
The ceremony was scaled down to less than one-tenth of last year's size because of the Covid-19 outbreak. The legacy of the conflict still haunts Japan's ties with its neighbours China and the two Koreas, where bitter memories of Tokyo's military aggression linger.
Abe sent a ritual offering to the shrine for war dead on Saturday, but avoided a personal visit that would anger China and South Korea.