The year 79 AD saw Mount Vesuvius erupt and bury Pompeii and neighbouring Roman settlements beneath ash.
The settlements had become archaeological marvels as the volcanic ash has preserved and carbonized much for Pompeii's architecture and residents for future study.
The town of Herculaneum, a wealthy coastal town, had been destroyed as well by the toxic gas and volcanic matter.
Now researchers, studying the remains of one such victim have published a study at the New England Journal of Medicine, revealing that "fragments of a glassy, black material were extracted from the victim's skull."
The researchers believe the "black material" is the vitrified remains of the man's brain, according to a BBC report.
According to the study, "Vitrification is the process by which material is burned at a high heat and cooled rapidly, turning it into glass or a glaze"
Forensic Anthropologist and lead author of the study Dr Pier Paola Petrone said, ""The preservation of ancient brain remains is an extremely rare find."
"This is the first ever discovery of ancient human brain remains vitrified by heat," he added.