Egypt's ousted former President Hosni Mubarak has died at the age of 91, state television said on Tuesday (February 25), weeks after undergoing surgery.
Mubarak ruled Egypt for 30 years until he was ousted following mass protests against his rule in 2011. He was jailed for years after the uprising, but was freed in 2017 after being acquitted of most charges.
Key facts about Hosni Mubarak
* Mohamed Hosni Mubarak was born on May 4, 1928 in the village of Kafr al-Meselha in the Nile Delta, the son of a government functionary.
* Mubarak joined the Egyptian Military Academy after school before becoming an air force pilot, rising through the ranks to become air force commander. In 1975, he became vice president to Anwar Sadat, the man who made Egypt's historic peace deal with Israel.
* Mubarak was thrust unexpectedly into office when Islamists assassinated Sadat at a military parade in 1981. The burly former air force commander was never expected to become president but he proved a far more durable leader than anyone imagined at the time.
* In power, Mubarak promoted Middle East peace and, from 2004, backed economic liberalisation measures that delivered sturdy growth but which many ordinary Egyptians blamed for widening the gap between rich and power.
* Mubarak was a close ally of the United States, which saw him as a bulwark against Islamist militants and poured billions of dollars of military and other aid into Egypt since it became the first Arab state to make peace with Israel.
* He always kept a tight lid on political opposition and resisted significant political change, even under pressure from the United States.
* Mubarak won his first multi-candidate presidential election in 2005, but the outcome was never in doubt and his main rival came a distant second. Rights groups and observers said the election was marred by irregularities, as were all elections during his years in powers.
* The former president had suffered from health problems in the waning years of his rule and went to Germany for gall bladder surgery in March 2010. Yet questions remained over who would succeed the ageing stalwart.
* The rising political profile and economic influence of his sons, Alaa and Gamal, led many to believe Mubarak was grooming them to take power after his death, and raised concerns among his allies in the military that would later prove politically fatal.
* Mubarak stepped down on Feb. 11, 2011, after 18 days of demonstrations by millions of Egyptians inspired by a peaceful popular revolution in Tunisia. The military took control pending democratic elections which were held in 2012.
* Mubarak first went into internal exile in the Red Sea resort of Sharm el-Sheikh, where he spent more and more time during his last years in power. After suffering heart problems during questioning, Mubarak was detained in hospital pending the outcome of his trials.
* He first stood trial on Aug. 3, 2011 for the killing of protesters on charges that carry the death penalty, becoming the first leader toppled in the "Arab Spring" uprisings to be tried. The televised early hearings mesmerised the Arab world, showing the ageing autocrat lying on a hospital bed in a courtroom cage.
* Mubarak was sentenced to life in prison in 2012 for his role in the killing of protesters. In 2014, an appeal court judge dropped charges against him. A final ruling by the Court of Cassation on March 2 declared him innocent. In the end, he was convicted on only one corruption charge, serving the three-year sentence in hospital, where he fell and hurt his pelvis in 2014.
* Mubarak left the Maadi Military Hospital on March 24, for his home in the upscale Cairo neighbourhood of Heliopolis.
* Mubarak's critics said his release symbolised the reversal of gains made during the 18-day uprising the ended his 30-year rule.
Hosni Mubarak 30 years in power
October 6, 1981 - Vice-President Hosni Mubarak is thrust into office when Islamists gun down President Anwar Sadat at a military parade. He is approved as president in a referendum in November and re-elected in October 1987 and October 1993.
June 26, 1995 - Gunmen attack Mubarak's car as he arrives at an Organization of African Unity summit in Ethiopia's capital Addis Ababa. He is unhurt and returns to Egypt. Mubarak later blames a Sudanese man for the attempt.
November 17, 1997 - Egypt's biggest Islamic militant group, al-Gama'a al-Islamiya (Islamic Group) kill 58 tourists and four Egyptians at an ancient temple near the southern town of Luxor. Six gunmen and three police also die. The state crushed groups including al-Gama'a al-Islamiya and Islamic Jihad, which targeted tourists, Christians, ministers in a 1990s campaign for an Islamic state and has kept a tight lid on such groups since.
October 5, 1999 - Mubarak is sworn in as president for his fourth term and names Atef Obeid as prime minister after the government led by Kamal Ganzouri resigns.
December 22, 1999 - Egypt agrees to sell its natural gas through what Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak's office dubs a "Pipeline of Peace." After years of negotiations alongside the strains of Middle East peacemaking, Barak's office says gas will be piped from El-Arish in Egypt to Israel and the Palestinian Authority, and later to Turkey, Syria and Lebanon.
March 2005 - Street protests by the Kefaya (Enough) Movement draw hundreds across Egypt to oppose a fifth term for Mubarak or any attempt to install his son Gamal in his place. Days before, police say they detained about 200 members and supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood.
May 11, 2005 - Parliament votes to change the constitution to allow contested presidential elections, dismissing opposition complaints that strict rules would prevent genuine competition. A referendum later in May overwhelmingly confirms the constitutional change.
September 27, 2005 - Mubarak is sworn in for a fifth consecutive term after winning the first contested presidential election on September 7. Rival Ayman Nour is the only member of parliament to remain seated during the ceremony, apparently to show his refusal to accept the official vote count.
December 8, 2005 - The Muslim Brotherhood increase their seats in parliament after an election marred by violence, but Mubarak's party retains a big majority. Eight people were killed on the last day of voting on December 7. The Muslim Brotherhood says it has won 12 seats, expanding its parliamentary bloc to 88, nearly a fifth of the seats and its strongest showing ever.
November 19, 2006 - Mubarak says he will retain his responsibilities for the rest of his life.
June 4, 2009 - US President Barack Obama in a speech in Cairo calls for a "new beginning" in ties between Washington and the Islamic world.
March 26, 2010 - Former UN nuclear chief Mohamed ElBaradei makes first public appearance after his return to Egypt in February. ElBaradei has said he would consider a presidential bid if demands are met, including constitutional changes to limit power.
March 27, 2010 - Mubarak returns to Egypt to reassume presidential powers after three weeks recovering from gallbladder surgery in Germany.
November 29, 2010 - The Muslim Brotherhood says a rigged election has all but wiped out its presence in parliament, virtually eliminating opposition to Mubarak's ruling party before a 2011 presidential vote. The group skirts a ban on religious parties by running independents.
January 25, 2011 - Anti-government protests across Egypt begin as demonstrators voice anger, complaining of poverty and repression.
January 28 - Mubarak orders troops and tanks into cities overnight to quell demonstrations across Egypt. The U.N later says around 300 people have been killed in the protests.
January 31 - Egypt swears in a new government. New Vice-President Omar Suleiman says Mubarak has asked him to start dialogue with all political forces.
February 1 - More than one million people around Egypt call for an end to Mubarak's rule.