Battle of Diu
In early sixteenth century, the profitable spice trade in the Red Sea was precious to the whole world. Portugal, at that period was in the mood of naval expansion to rule over the spice trade routes. Against Portugal's naval expansion, a powerful Coalition was formed in Northwest India including Sultanate of Gujarat, the powerful Mamluks Sultanate, the Calicut Zamorin, the Ottoman Empire, and even Venice. Portugal's ambitious politics were seen as a considerable threat to the income of each country. Both the coalition met at the Battle of Diu in 1509. The Portuguese, with 18 ships, defeated the coalition with their 100 ships. The Battle of Diu helped to turn the Indian Ocean into a Portuguese lake.
The Dutch-Portuguese War
Between 1597 and 1609, the Dutch captured 30 Spanish and Portuguese ships in Asia, most of which were trading vessels full of precious items of spices. The number of Portuguese ships sent to Asia was usually between 5 and 10 each year. The Dutch attacks on the Spanish and Portuguese trade in Asia in addition to their other efforts in Africa, Brazil, and the Caribbean took an economic toll.
Portuguese Conquest of Ceylon
In the early 16th century, the Portuguese dominated the spice trade in India. They had their eyes on the island of Ceylon—present-day Sri Lanka—which was famous for its cinnamon. In 1518, Viceroy Lopo Soares de Albegaria landed near Colombo with a large fleet and set up a fort. After crushing some resistance, he triumphed over the king of Kotte. An agreement was signed that the king would pay the Portuguese 300 bahars of cinnamon, 20 ruby rings, and six elephants. The Dutch systematically pushed the Portuguese off the island over the course of the 17th century to seize control of the cinnamon trade.
Vasco da Gama's Campaign of Terror
In 1502, Vasco da Gama led the third Portuguese expedition to the Indian Ocean with a fleet of 20 ships sent to wrest control of the trade routes from Muslim powers. Upon arrival at Cannanore (present-day Kannur), India, he 'wasted no time' in beginning a campaign of terror along the Arabian coast, attacking and raiding coastal communities, killed pilgrimage and fishermen.
Massacre for Nutmeg
Nutmeg was a highly popular spice in Europe in the 15th century. Nutmeg that cost a penny in Asian markets could fetch two pounds, 10 shillings on the London streets. But it was found only in a single source- Banda Island of Indonesia ruled by Dutch East India Company. The Dutch established a strict and paranoid policy of protection, banning the export of trees, drenching nutmeg in lime to render it infertile before export, and imposing a death penalty on those caught stealing, growing, or selling it. When the local inhabitants rebelled against the rules, company head Jan Pieterszoon Coen ordered a massacre. The Dutch set about executing every Bandanese male over the age of 15 by quartering and beheading. Village leaders were beheaded, their heads placed on poles outside villages. Within 15 years, the Dutch reduce the island's population from 15,000 to 600.
The War of Chioggia
Long before the Atlantic powers rounded Africa and stuck their noses into the Asian trade system, trade of spices and other Asian commodities was dominated by Mediterranean powers like Venice and Genoa. These two maritime republics had a great economic rivalry, and Venice feared Genoese attacks against its trading stations in the Levant and the Black Sea. In 1378, two Venetian fleets were sent to harass the Genoese. In 1379, a Genoese fleet was sent to attack Venice directly. By 1380, Venetian triumphed over Genoese to ensure power over spice route.