A patchwork of campaigns for an extra Covid-19 shot are being rolled out across the European Union even before the region's drug watchdog rules on whether they are safe and effective.
Italy, France, Germany and Ireland have already started to administer booster shots and the Netherlands plans to do so soon but only to people who are immuno-suppressed.
But several EU countries are waiting for the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to give its opinion this week.
The fragmented picture mirrors the different approaches seen in the roll-out of shots across one of the world's wealthiest regions at the turn of the year.
They also highlight the lack of consensus among scientists about how broadly they are needed, while governments seek to revive their ailing economies, fight the more infectious Delta variant, and avoid further lockdowns in the winter.
Underscoring what is at stake, the EU's infectious diseases centre said on Thursday the region's coverage of vaccines was still too low and there was a risk of a significant surge in cases, hospitalisations and deaths over the next six weeks.