Although climate change is a global problem, its impact on the developing, or underdeveloped economies will be devastating and unbalanced. In these countries, there are severe shortages of materials, science, and technology to adapt to the changing environment and situation. The funny thing is that the people of the least developed, developing or underdeveloped countries are or will be the victims of the better life of the developed countries. An acute example is Bangladesh.
Bangladesh is one of the most endangered coastal countries in the world due to global warming and climate change. Scientists say that if global warming continues at the same rate, a large area of Bangladesh will be flooded in the next 100 years, and about 30 million people will become refugees.
According to the World Bank, Bangladesh emits only 0.40 percent of the world's total greenhouse gases. But unfortunately, we will be one of the top 10 countries affected by climate change. Mainly due to geographical location, overpopulation, poverty, and inadequacy of social security, the risk of Bangladesh is increasing day by day. As a result, the economic effect is gradually intensifying due to the impact of various climatic variables, such as rainfall and changes in average temperature, which may go beyond proper management in the future. Let's take a brief look at the effects of climate change on Bangladesh.
The Reason behind the Global Warming
There is an invisible layer called the 'ozone layer in the atmosphere, which prevents the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays from entering the earth and helps the heat from the earth to return to space in the process of radiation. But, due to man-made pollution and deforestation, the ozone layer is being eroded. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gas is used in household products such as refrigerators, air conditioners, various types of sprays, etc., which are also used in industry. This CFC is one of the reasons for the depletion of the ozone layer in space.
Excessive carbon dioxide is not being absorbed due to environmental pollution and deforestation. This results in an excessive increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which traps the heat from the sun in the atmosphere. Thus, on the one hand, due to the depletion of the ozone layer, the ultraviolet rays of the sun are reaching the earth. On the other hand, heat is constantly being stored in the atmosphere. Thus the earth has become heated. The world as a whole is facing natural disasters as a result of an endangered environment.
Climate Change and its Impact in Bangladesh
According to environmental scientists, Bangladesh is one of the countries most affected by global warming. The major natural disasters that have been occurring in Bangladesh in recent times are mainly due to climate change. Following are the top effects in Bangladesh.
Sea Level Rise
Bangladesh is one of the largest delta islands in the world, with numerous rivers flowing through it. If the earth's temperature rises by 1 degree Celsius, 19 percent of Bangladesh's land will be lost to the sea. As a result, 55 million people will be affected.
The sea level in Bangladesh is increasing at the rate of 7 mm per year, whereas the rate of increase in land level is 5-6 mm / year. As a result, the rate of sea-level rise in the coastal areas of Bangladesh is 1-2 mm/year. According to a study, the current sea level could rise by 3.5 to 15 mm per decade. Even by the year 2100, it can reach 30 cm to 100 cm. Therefore, the rise in sea level will cause a terrible disaster for Bangladesh.
According to environmentalists and geologists, if the sea level rises by just 1 meter, 70 percent of the Sundarbans will be submerged. If biodiversity is destroyed, it will have terrible consequences for Bangladesh as well as the world. The environment will lose its balance.
Due to the steep slopes, flash floods occur every year in the northeastern part of Bangladesh, especially in the Meghna Basin. About 4,000 sq km in the northeastern part of the country and about 1,400 sq km in the southeastern part of the country are the victims of such flash floods. As a result of climate change, rainfall and mountain slopes are increasing.
Drought occurs when the level of evaporation is higher than the lack of moisture in the soil, i.e., rainfall. Climate change is taking place as a result of global warming, the effects of which are also being felt in Bangladesh. In the north-western part of Bangladesh, agriculture is being severely hampered due to a lack of rainfall and water during the monsoon season, and crop production is also declining.
Decrease in River Flow and Increase in Salinity of Water
Bangladesh is an agricultural country. The normal flow of rivers is very important for land irrigation and navigation. Climate change disrupts the normal flow of rivers. As a result, the flow of major rivers will be reduced, and due to the weak flow of the river, sea salt water will easily enter the inland river flow of the country and increase the salinity in the river water. At present, saline water enters coastal areas of Bangladesh and about 1.4 million hectares of remote islands, making open water and groundwater saline. These salinity levels will increase further as the climate changes.
Ocean Storms and Tidal Surges
Ocean storms are usually caused by hot air and cyclones. Although other processes are active behind the formation of cyclones, the increase in water temperature is the main reason. Coastal districts in Bangladesh are hit hard by sea storms in May-June every year. As global warming increases, ocean water temperatures will also increase at an increasing rate. Naturally, the intensity of sea storms and tidal surges will also increase.
Is there anything we can do about Climate Change?
Although the developed countries are mainly responsible for climate change, the whole world will have to work together to cope with the situation. For our part, we have to work on extensive afforestation programs. trees absorb harmful carbon dioxide gas from nature and emit oxygen. Therefore, the balance of the environment is maintained.
The afforestation program should be started as soon as possible in the coastal areas and riverine areas of the country. As a result, river erosion and the intensity of sea storms will be reduced. Simultaneously, deforestation must be prevented.
Furthermore, we will have to work on reducing the emissions of harmful gases that increase the temperature of the atmosphere. The industries need to save energy and take steps to purify the generated waste.
Bangladesh is a country of natural disasters and various types of natural disasters are common in this country every year. In the coming years, disasters will become more severe due to climate changes. Hence, we have to be aware from now on, and we have to make proper preparation.